These are producing substantial reductions in insecticide use, whilst maintaining yields and increasing profits Table 1. Despite millions of dollars of research expenditure over many years, systems that have been produced are suitable only for research stations. Many productive and sustainable systems, needing few or no external inputs, have been developed.
After independence, commodity-based extension services emerged from the remnants of the colonial system, with production targets established as part of five-year development plans.
Incentive systems will have to be developed to reward staff for being in the field and working closely with farmers. Most of the approaches to which Axinn refers have been supported by FAO at various times.
This constitutes a radical reversal of the normal modes of research and technology generation, because it requires interactive participation between professionals and farmers. They are sometimes referred to as county agents, or extension educators.
This being so, the state must take on a central role in financing advisory services which are important, but not financially rewarding for the private sector.
Sustainable agriculture must be responsive to changing circumstances, so farmers need to invest in observation, observation equipment, record keeping, and monitoring procedures.
Extension personnel have the task of bringing scientific knowledge to farm families in the farms and homes. In addition to providing advice on the management of natural resources, integrated pest management and advisory services to the very poor, the state has a critical role to play in establishing markets for commercial and farmer-to-farmer extension services, providing rural communication infrastructure, and developing human resources.
Predators and parasitoids to control pests often require a larger biotope than that of a small farm. Some ideas change; paradigms shift; and purposes vary.
If new technologies are appropriate and fit a particular farmer's conditions or needs, then they stand a good chance of being adopted.
Participation, if it is to become part of extension, must clearly be interactive and empowering. A great deal of publicity was given through radio, TV, and advisory leaflets. These estimates however, do not take into account the costs to beneficiaries which can make the approach relatively costly compared to other types of programme approaches.
But learning should not be confused with teaching. In fact, extension in high-income countries is already providing information and education services in urban areas, extending beyond technical agriculture and rural development alone.
Less commonly, farmers may implement trials designed by researchers. Many on-farm trials and demonstration plots represent nothing better than passive participation Pretty, b. Pesticides have replaced biological, cultural, and mechanical methods for controlling pests, weeds, and diseases; inorganic fertilizers have substituted for livestock manures, composts, and nitrogen-fixing crops; information for management decisions comes from input suppliers, researchers, and extensionists rather than from local sources; and fossil fuels have substituted for locally generated energy sources.The role of agricultural extension in the development of agriculture throughout the world is not in doubt.
It has remained one of the prime movers in the development of agriculture and invariably in the rural development. This paper reviewed the role of extension officers and extension services in the development of agriculture in Nigeria.
A study was conducted to determine the major roles of county agricultural extension agents in the agricultural technology delivery system in the year as perceived by state directors of cooperative extension (N=67).
Directors, of whom 52 returned usable survey forms, were asked to identify the. Achieving food security in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia through innovation: Potential role of agricultural extension. extension.
The role of the extension worker. What agroforestry extension is and is not. Extension can be described as a non-formal educational system aimed at improving the livelihood of people. Mississippi State University is an equal opportunity institution.
Discrimination in university employment, programs or activities based on race, color, ethnicity, sex, pregnancy, religion, national origin, disability, age, sexual orientation, genetic information, status as a U.S.
veteran, or any other status protected by applicable law is prohibited. As residents of the communities in which they work, local extension agents bring credibility to their roles as educators.
High-Impact Outcome Tomorrow’s agricultural and natural resource workforce.Download